The Enchiridion by Epictetus (Audio Book)
The Enchiridion by Epictetus (c.55-135). Translated by Elizabeth Carter (1717-1806). Epictetus (Greek: ?????????; c.55--c.135) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. The name given by his parents, if one was given, is not known -- the word epiktetos in Greek simply means "acquired." Epictetus spent his youth as a slave in Rome to Epaphroditos, a very wealthy freedman of Nero. Even as a slave, Epictetus used his time productively, studying Stoic Philosophy under Musonius Rufus. He was eventually freed and lived a relatively hard life in ill health in Rome. So far as is known, Epictetus himself wrote nothing. All that we have of his work was transcribed by his pupil Arrian. The main work is The Discourses, four books of which have been preserved (out of an original eight). Arrian also compiled a popular digest, entitled the Enchiridion, or Handbook. In a preface to the Discourses, addressed to Lucius Gellius, Arrian states that "whatever I heard him say I used to write down, word for word, as best I could, endeavouring to preserve it as a memorial, for my own future use, of his way of thinking and the frankness of his speech".